This year we received over 280 entries and the standard of photos has been higher than ever before!

Now, this is your chance to vote for your favourite photo and crown a winner!

This Years Top prizes:

  • HAIX Protector Forest 2.0 chainsaw boots from Sorbus (£306)
  • 1-year of AA membership (£67 - £240 depending on what grade you qualify for)
  • Fungi book bundle (£75)

Total Value: Up to £621

  • Arbortec gift card (£200)
  • Technical guides bundle (£50)

Total Value: £250

  • Gustharts climbing equipment (£145)
  • Arborists’ field guide bundle (£25)

Total Value: £170

A brand-new funding initiative to increase tree planting and natural regeneration in local communities has been announced by the government today (Friday 12 March), with £2.7 million available this year, building the pipeline of projects for community planting in future years.

The Local Authority Treescapes fund is aimed at establishing more trees in riverbanks, hedgerows, parklands, urban areas, beside roads and footpaths, in copses and shelterbelts, including neglected, disused and vacant community spaces. Trees in these settings are particularly valuable as they can provide the greatest levels of benefit to ecosystems and society, such as carbon absorption, flood protection and support for biodiversity, as well as connecting fragmented habitats.

The fund will help the nation build back greener from the pandemic and will target landscapes that have been neglected in the past, ecologically damaged or affected by tree diseases like ash dieback - with ash being the most common species of tree found in non-woodland locations. Grants are available for local authorities, working together with community groups, volunteers, NGOs. Successful applicants will be informed by the end of July.

Forestry Minister Lord Goldsmith said:

“I am delighted to announce this new fund, which will get trees planted and land regenerated for the benefit of local communities and nature. This is an opportunity for communities to work with their local authorities to identify land, design projects and apply for funds. Trees and land restoration are central to our plans for nature recovery and to get to net zero emissions, and we know how much value people place on trees and green spaces in their local communities.”

Forestry Commission Chair Sir William Worsley said:

“The Local Authority Treescapes Fund can play an important role in creating resilient new tree growth our communities, particularly in areas which have lost trees to historical neglect and disease.”

This year, £2.7 million will be available from the government’s Nature For Climate Fund.

Applications will be open to all local authorities, via top tier authority applications. Local authorities are encouraged to work with other organisations, NGOs, community groups and private individuals to deliver the most exciting projects. Bids will be accepted from early April 2021.

The Nature For Climate fund will help us deliver the English portion of the government’s manifesto commitment to increase tree planting to 30,000 hectares per year across the UK by 2025, alongside peatland restoration and nature recovery.

The Plantsman’s Choice

Elm as a future urban tree: is it possible?

Dr Henrik Sjöman and Dr Andrew Hirons

The high tolerance of many elms to challenging urban conditions, combined with their ease of establishment, meant that they were widely appreciated across Europe and North America until their near-complete demise as a result of Dutch elm disease (DED). Today, as we seek long-term sustainable tree species for our towns and cities, there is a great desire to make the elm part of our urban treescape once again.

In Europe and North America, the elm (Ulmus spp.) was historically one of the most common urban trees until the end of the 20th century. Parts of Amsterdam in the Netherlands had over 70% elm along their streets and in their parks. Cities such as Malmö in Sweden were also proud of their majestic elms. It seems that in the eyes of some policy makers there was no reason to break a winning concept: all other trees were worse in comparison; it had to be elm on elm. However, these cities experienced the catastrophic effects of over-reliance on one type of plant material as the DED epidemic struck. Such widespread mortality of such a profoundly dominant tree was a bitter blow to many towns and cities. The effects of these losses can still be observed today.

Therefore, proposing elm once again as a city tree may seem unthinkable, but thanks to the hard work of tree breeders, it is now a realistic prospect. We know that many Asian species of elm are resistant to the serious type of DED, which has led them to be used in extensive hybridization work to produce DED-resistant trees. Many of these selected cultivars are of North American origin, including two that we have a substantial experience of now: the so-called Resista® elms, ‘New Horizon’ and ‘Rebona’. In order to succeed with them, however, you must know their background, so that you can more easily understand their capacity for growing in urban environments, as well as the care they may require.

Both cultivars are American hybrids from the University of Wisconsin and both have the Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) and Japanese elm (Ulmus davidiana var. japonica) as their parents. It’s important to note that the characteristics of Siberian elm are such that its genes might be considered something of a mixed blessing.

In fact, some of what is said about the Siberian elm would not be polite to put into print. Suffice to say that some consider its weed-like growth, which results in an untamed, wild crown perched atop a stick, makes it one of the worse trees you can grow. However, the advantage of the species is its outstanding tolerance for hot and dry conditions, attributes that have served it well in its native regions around the edges of the Gobi Desert in northern China. So, having Siberian elm as a parent in these cultivars means that you get trees that are tolerant to the most challenging of urban environments and that quickly establish and grow fast. On the other hand, you also get trees with a rather messy crown structure, which is particularly difficult to manage at a young age when branching can be very dense and irregular. This means that it is wise to buy larger plant material (trunk size at least 25–30cm circumference at 1m) where the nursery has already done the difficult and extensive work of building an even and attractive crown structure.

Ulmus ‘New Horizon’

Ulmus ‘New Horizon’.

Ulmus ‘New Horizon’

Ulmus ‘New Horizon’.

Ulmus ‘New Horizon’

Early-mature trees of the cultivar develop with an oval crown, 10–12m high and 4m wide, but over time they can become significantly wider, usually with a continuous single trunk and a dense but fairly evenly distributed branch structure. The dimensions of the mature tree are listed by German nurseries as 25m × 10m. The cultivar enjoys heat and is a really good inner-city tree; its wind resistance also makes it a good tree for planting adjacent to highways. The autumn colour is not spectacular though. The variety has been around for 25 years in European cultivation and in the USA for another 10–15 years and is considered completely resistant to DED.

Ulmus ‘Rebona’

This cultivar is similar to ‘New Horizon’ but has a stronger tendency to develop a consistent single trunk with a more even crown density. The leaves are also slightly larger in ‘Rebona’ compared to ‘New Horizon’. Trees of the cultivar are very fast growing and initially develop a narrow pyramidal growth pattern, 10–15m high and about 4m wide, while older trees become significantly wider. Here, too, German data describe final sizes of 25m × 10m. ‘Rebona’ is also heat tolerant, wind resistant and it has proven to be resistant to flooding. The cultivar is somewhat newer and thus has not been tested as long as ‘New Horizon’, but it has shown remarkable tolerance for inner-city environments.

Ulmus ‘Rebona’.

Ulmus ‘Rebona’.

Dr Henrik Sjöman

Dr Henrik Sjöman is a Lecturer at the Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences and a Scientific Curator at Gothenburg Botanic Garden.

Dr Andrew Hirons

Dr Andrew Hirons is a Senior Lecturer in Arboriculture and Urban Forestry at University Centre Myerscough.


This article was taken form Issue 191 Winter 2020 of the ARB Magazine, which is available to view free to Arboricultural Association members by simply logging in to the website and viewing your profile area.

A contractor’s approach
to ensuring ancient and veteran tree continuity

Tom Hamments

There exists a fundamental divide among ancient and veteran trees with regard to their history and how they became so.

Ancient Tree Forum

On one side are the trees which have been left to their own devices, not worked by mankind historically or currently, nor heavily influenced by the intensive management of the surrounding area; their features are manifestations of completely natural processes and weather events. On the other side are trees which have been cut, pruned or otherwise altered for some purpose. These purposes vary, but can include to produce one-off or cyclic wood fuel or simply to create an access for farming or other reasons. I suspect the slight majority of ancient trees (defined by age for species) fall into the former category and the slight majority of veteran trees (defined by their individual features or other especially high value) fall into the latter category, but there are many examples of overlap.

Both natural ageing and human intervention can instigate similar physiological processes which create the features and characteristics we recognise in these trees (broadly speaking). Physiological processes caused by natural ageing tend to be in harmony and are, at some stage, accompanied by relative structural change; these processes complement each other and work to prolong the life of the tree. Physiological processes caused by human intervention are often abrupt changes that other parts of the tree were not ready for, nor necessarily needed. Typically, these cause a far quicker and more crude result and are not always conducive to longevity. When we consider the management of existing ancient and veteran trees – and of trees with the potential to become ancient or veteran – it is important to understand these processes, if only at a rudimentary level. Here is an overview of the difference between natural and induced tree system and structure changes.

Resilient Cumbrian hawthorn.

Ancient sweet chestnut (home to an array of epiphytes: its own ecosystem!).

Ancient Sweet Chestnut

Ancient sweet chestnut (home to an array of epiphytes: its own ecosystem!).

Natural reduction of crown area (syn. retrenchment)

In maturity, shoot extension gradually decreases in a linear relationship with root performance, rhizosphere size and resource availability. Hydraulic resistance increases as a result of the natural filtration through narrowing xylemic pathways between successional terminal bud scars until such a point that hydraulic resistance is too much and the peripheries of the crown start to die back. Plant hormones (mainly auxin, cytokinin and ethylene) are then responsible for gradually rebalancing a root-to-shoot ratio, with a combination of the growth of dormant or adventitious buds into new shoots lower down the tree and the death of roots no longer required. Conversion of sapwood now surplus to requirements ensures the tree is servicing no more functional cells than it needs to, plus a contingency.

Induced reduction of crown area

When photosynthetic capacity is reduced by crown reduction, the tree system has fewer resources to do more work. The tree must sustain maintenance respiration of live tissue as a priority, as well as renewing xylem and phloem and producing flowers and seeds. On top of this, it must now compartmentalise and produce wound-wood, restore translocational pathways and protect itself from disadvantageous decay and occlude the wounds. The tree can seldom do this using energy being produced at the time (kinetic energy) and must rely on using energy stored in sapwood (potential energy) to overcome these hurdles. With many species of tree (and even genetic differences within the same species), the parameters of tolerance are small. If too much crown is removed, the tree may use up its stored energy before completing some or all of these processes. Wherever significant parts of the crown are removed, an amount of sapwood will die as it is no longer needed to service a smaller crown/root volume.

Natural fungal decay

Fungal decay in trees is entirely purposeful. A tree ageing in a natural way will have been converting sapwood to heartwood or ripewood as the inner circumference of sapwood becomes obsolete as a result of secondary growth. The tree does not need its whole cross-sections to be active; indeed, it could not sustain the maintenance respiration requirements of such a large area of live tissue. Fungal propagules exist latently in trees, and these propagules are able to activate and begin the decay process when conditions are right. This may be after they have been transferred into heartwood or ripewood or while they are in sapwood if areas of sapwood become dysfunctional in resource translocation (and therefore desiccate) as a result of crown loss or direct injury. When the decay process begins as a result of the retrenchment process, in the overwhelming majority of cases the rate of decay does not exceed the rate of retrenchment, i.e. the risk of structural failure from a reduction in stem volume is mitigated by a continual and gradual reduction in the forces applied there.

Induced fungal decay

When fungal decay is induced after (usually severe) pruning, it often has a much larger volume of wood available to it. Sapwood does not have the same chemical composition as heartwood: dysfunctional sapwood arising from an abruptly reduced demand for resource translocation is more vulnerable to colonisation and at a quicker rate. Fungal hyphae may then move readily into heartwood or ripewood (depending on the situation), and some species may work outwards from dysfunctional sapwood into functional sapwood where they may shut the tree system down (though most would preferentially degrade desiccated tissue first).

Moreover, where decay is onset after human intervention, the reduction in stem volume may not be mitigated by whatever pruning has already been done, and the tree could be more liable to failure going forward – particularly if decay has onset in a stem which hosts a crown proliferating growth to replace lost photosynthetic capacity!

Natural hollowing

While natural hollowing heavily overlaps with fungal decay, we can identify a common key difference in the way it occurs. When the crown of a tree retrenches naturally, it is still growing in girth (secondary growth). In order to perform secondary-growth functions, the tree requires energy produced by the crown and, of course, the water and nutrients needed to photosynthesise in the first place. This creates a conflict: girth increase vs. photosynthetic capacity decrease. In practice, this results in ever-decreasing annual rings of laid down wood, until the point where the laid down wood does not create a full ring. Cork cambium and therefore bark are not produced in that area, and an ingress into the structure is created. Heartwood or ripewood is then exposed, allowing the fungal propagules within it to activate and begin the hollowing process. Remember, at this stage retrenchment has been occurring in a steady fashion – natural hollowing is rarely a cause for concern of structural failure as, by now, the crown is small and forces on the structure are low. As the middle of the tree decays, valuable nutrients are available to the tree again. It is a perfect cycle which, in essence, is infinite.

Flammulina velutipes on horse chestnut.

Flammulina velutipes on horse chestnut.

Ganoderma australe on sycamore.

Ganoderma australe on sycamore.

Induced hollowing

Where a vigorous tree continues to grow on a hollowing stem (typical species include Salix spp. and Populus spp.), failure is likely (if a limiting factor does not slow or halt crown growth). Most of us working in practical roles have, on more than one occasion, cleared failed lapsed willow pollards. The decay and subsequent hollowing process begin in earnest after the first pollarding. If the cycle is kept up, there may not be an issue, but if the pollard is left to lapse, the forces applied to the hollowing stem by a heavy crown often result in failure. This type of hollowing can be easily induced in any species when the crown of a functional unit is pruned – a functional unit being a tree within a tree: a part of the crown serves a part of the roots and vice versa, not requiring resources from other parts of the crown or roots respectively. This functional unit system may be efficient, but because it is utilising only a proportion of the circumference of sapwood, it is liable to be damaged when its associated crown is pruned or removed, even if the rest of the crown is left untouched. When this unit is shut down by severe pruning, we get vertical strips of dysfunction visible on the stem which can lead to hollowing. The risk of failure here is that the rest of the crown is possibly still growing …

Natural reduction of root area (syn. retrenchment)

As explained above, crown and root retrenchment are relative when they occur naturally. There is little risk to the physiological and structural condition of the tree if retrenchment of the roots is linear to retrenchment of the crown. Typically, the deeper and more vertical roots die off first; the shape of the rhizosphere of an older tree is usually shallower and wider than the wine-glass shape of the rhizosphere of a younger tree. Death of structural roots can be an instigator for fungi latent in the wood or soil to colonise and decay vertically into the root crown and subsequently the heartwood or ripewood of the tree, leading to hollowing with little or no open cavitation in the stem. This habitat is valuable where access exists via small branch cavities or through insect galleries etc.

Induced reduction of root area

One of the most prolific causes of tree death, particularly in ancient and veteran trees and those with the potential to become ancient or veteran, is human activity leading to root dysfunction. Compaction by vehicles, plant or footfall (including grazing animals) creates anaerobic conditions in the soil so roots cannot respire, renders water unable to penetrate or move within the rhizosphere, and inhibits root exploration. Mycorrhizal fungi are also negatively affected by damaged roots or a damaged rooting area. Because the vast majority of roots are in the top layers of soil, this can quickly cause a loss of available resources for the tree system. It is my opinion that fungi such as Armillaria mellea and Meripilus giganteus revel in such conditions, easily colonising or activating in desiccated roots. The tree system is weak from a lack of resources, and it cannot always respond adequately.

Aim to retain

This article is intended as an overview. There are many occasions when we will absolutely want to contradict the advice implied here. Indeed, there are occasions when we will actually want to cause some of the issues outlined above if the potential benefits outweigh the negative impacts. However, if we take time to understand a tree’s system, look at it in detail when deciding on management, assess its history, and think about whether we consider our observations to be features or defects, we will probably find ourselves making different judgements to those which spring to mind in the first few seconds of standing in front of it.

It is my belief, based on my experience, that there is a disadvantageous disparity between ideal work specifications (including doing nothing and planting!), which would help us maintain a sufficient level of ancient and veteran trees, and the work specifications which are actually administered, and this disparity hinders continuity. I think this is often a result of risk perception, client demands and/or financial gain (or loss). Many operators working in tree surgery roles began a career in this industry because they enjoy tree climbing and using power tools, as I did. These same operators are (in situations where there has been no input from a consultant) the same people deciding specifications of work to trees, and in doing so they are already balancing many factors which often come before consideration of whether the tree has current or potential ancient or veteran status and/or could be retained with tolerable risk. If every company in the UK retained one extra (suitable) tree per month, that would be a monumental benefit to our ancient and veteran stock in generations to come.

Subjects which I will leave for another article, such as local and higher-level policy frameworks and land use conducive to ageing trees, are also important factors consistent with ancient and veteran tree continuity. However, I hope that if you are a contractor making decisions about trees, you will find this article useful when deciding work specifications.

Tom Hamments

Tom Hamments leads ATF Gloucestershire and is Managing Director of ARB Approved Contractor Stockwell Davies Tree Contractors Ltd.


This article was taken form Issue 191 Winter 2020 of the ARB Magazine, which is available to view free to Arboricultural Association members by simply logging in to the website and viewing your profile area.

Emerald ash borer:
a brief overview

Sam Rivers

With ash trees in the UK already under pressure from Chalara ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus), a new threat emerging from North America and Asia could have devastating effects on our UK ash population.

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera:Buprestidae)) is one of the most serious pests of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America, causing approximately $10 billion in economic damage and resulting in the widespread mortality of ash resources throughout the US. Emerald ash borer (EAB) is yet to arrive in the UK. However, importation of wood from areas where it is present increases the risk of introduction.

Emerald ash borer is indigenous to eastern Asia and is predominantly a pest of ash trees. Populations were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002. Based on dendrochronology studies, EAB was likely first introduced in the early 1990s in Detroit, Michigan, believed to have been in ash wood used to secure crates on freight ships from Asia. It can easily infest both healthy and stressed ash trees in North America, where native ash species have not co-evolved with EAB. Within the beetle’s native range in China, species of Asian ash are usually resistant to EAB except during prolonged periods of environmental stress such as drought.

The beetle readily infests nearly all size diameters of ash trees from 5cm dbh (diameter at breast height) saplings to mature larger ash trees in both open-grown and interior forests. In China, native hosts of emerald ash borer include Fraxinus mandshurica and F. chinensis. North American ash species susceptible to the beetle include F. americana L, F. nigra Marshall, F. pennsylvanica Marshall, F. profunda Bush and F. quadrangulata.

Figure 1: Adult emerald ash borer. Source: https://www.daera-ni.gov.uk/articles/emerald-ash-boreragrilus-planipennis.

Figure 1: Adult emerald ash borer. Source: www.daera-ni.gov.uk/articles/emerald-ash-borer-agrilus-planipennis.

Life cycle

The life cycle of the beetle is primarily completed in one year but two years are often required, particularly in cooler climates or when eggs are laid late in the season. The adult flight season usually begins in May or June and peak flight occurs from June to July, ending in September. Emerald ash borer adults are most active on sunny days when temperatures exceed 25°C. During cooler or wet weather, adults will often rest in bark crevices or leaves. Adults consume foliage and live for up to several weeks under favourable conditions. To locate suitable hosts and potential mates, adults use olfactory and visual cues. Shades of purple and green are highly attractive to adults. Volatiles from ash bark and foliage have been shown to elicit positive responses in adults under laboratory conditions. Adults copulate on branches, foliage and the trunk of host plants. Oviposition occurs 5–10 days after adult emergence. Eggs are laid individually or in small clusters between layers of bark and in bark crevices along the trunk, major branches and sometimes exposed roots.

Under laboratory conditions, average emerald ash borer adult male longevity is 43 days; adult female longevity is seven to nine weeks with total fecundity averaging between 40–74 eggs per female, with a maximum of 307 eggs. Depending on temperature parameters, egg hatch occurs after 7–18 days. Neonate larvae chew through the surface of the egg that is in contact with the tree and tunnel directly though the outer bark to the cambial region where they feed on the inner bark (phloem) and outer sapwood, creating frass-filled galleries.

EAB has four larval instars; the head capsule and the sclerotized processes called the urogomphi located at the terminal end of the abdomen can be measured to distinguish the larval instars. For individuals completing their life cycle in one year, larvae overwinter as mature fourth instars. For individuals developing over two years, the first winter is usually spent as early instar larvae. Once a larva completes its feeding as a fourth instar, it constructs a pupal cell, usually in the outer sapwood of thin-barked branches of trees or in the outer bark of thick-barked trees. Before a pupal cell is created, fourth instar larvae bore a tunnel extending close to the surface of the outer bark that will be used as an exit hole for an emerging adult. In the pupal cell, a fourth instar larva folds itself into a J-shape before overwintering. In spring, larvae that overwintered in pupal cells develop into prepupae by gradually unfolding their body. Prepupae molt into exarate pupae (that is, pupae without a cocoon – they look like a very compressed, discoloured adult). Pupation occurs in late spring/early summer and can last for three to four weeks. After eclosion, the pharate (fully developed) adult remains in its pupal cell for approximately one week before it chews its way out of the tree by enlarging the exit tunnel, which is typically D-shaped and can be used as an indicator of infestation.

Figure 2: Characteristic D-shaped exit holes are a sign of infestation. Source: https://mdc.mo.gov/newsroom/mdc-confirms-invasive-emerald-ash-borer-ralls-county.

Figure 2: Characteristic D-shaped exit holes are a sign of infestation. Source: mdc.mo.gov/newsroom/mdc-confirms-invasive-emerald-ash-borer-ralls-county.

Figure 3: Emerald ash borer larvae feeding on Fraxinus spp. phloem tissue. Source: Author’s own.

Emerald ash borer larvae feeding on Fraxinus spp. phloem tissue. Source: Author’s own.

The impact of infestation

In North America there are 16 Fraxinus species. It is estimated that there are approximately 8.7 billion Fraxinus trees and saplings throughout the continental USA, all potentially susceptible to emerald ash borer. Over smaller spatial scales, Fraxinus spp. are essential components in forests and woodlands as a dominant or co-dominant species. In the UK, ash species were the second most commonly planted genus, and ash makes up nearly 15% of all UK broad-leaved woodland.

Trees often die after 1–3 years of successive infestation: mortality often begins in the crown branches, moving downward to the main trunk. Epicormic branches often develop along the lower trunk and are considered a sign that the tree is about to die.

Figure 4: Ash mortality caused by emerald ash borer. Source:
  https://www.bigotree.com/emerald-ash-borer-attacks-staunton-region/

Figure 4: Ash mortality caused by emerald ash borer. Source: www.bigotree.com/emerald-ash-borer-attacks-staunton-region/.

As Fraxinus species die, gaps in the forest canopy occur allowing light penetration further towards the forest understorey. Significant ecological impacts of the beetle will be determined by what plant associations establish post-invasion. In areas where EAB was first documented, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) has been replaced by spicebush (Lindera benzoin L.), pawpaw (Asimina trilobal Dunal) and prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum Mill). It is uncertain what post-invasion forests will look like: in many regions where EAB has impacted communities there is still regeneration of Fraxinus saplings and seed banks documented in the soil. The introduction of natural enemies and in some instances chemical treatment may reduce EAB density and allow regenerating ash to retain its ecological importance. Where significant forest structure changes occur as a result of EAB invasion, the biota, species interactions, hydrology, light regimen, nutrient cycling, vertebrate food value and other integral ecosystem characteristics will be altered. Structural changes may alter the suitability of the forest as a habitat for resident vertebrates and invertebrates. Canopy gaps, for instance, are shown to cause microclimate changes impacting ground beetle populations and encouraging invasive plant species, which would otherwise be limited by light availability.

If you think you have spotted signs of emerald ash borer anywhere in Great Britain, you must tell Forest Research immediately using the TreeAlert pest reporting tool: www.forestresearch.gov.uk/tools-and-resources/tree-alert/. Suspected sightings in Northern Ireland should be reported using TreeCheck: www.treecheck.net/


Sam Rivers

Sam Rivers currently works as a technical sales manager for ICL UK. Sam has a broad range of practical experience which includes working for a forest entomology lab in the US and as a senior horticulturalist at Cambridge University. He holds a National Diploma in horticulture, a BSc (hons) in Horticulture and an MSc in Entomology.


This article was taken form Issue 191 Winter 2020 of the ARB Magazine, which is available to view free to Arboricultural Association members by simply logging in to the website and viewing your profile area.

What is arboriculture?

The science and practice of the cultivation, establishment and management of amenity trees for the benefit of society.

Arboriculture is to trees what horticulture is to other plants, in that it usually refers to the care of trees grown or maintained for their aesthetic or environmental value, rather than the value of their timber or fruit.

It differs from forestry and woodland management in both the methods of tree management used and the overall objectives of tree planting and development.

In a nutshell, Arboriculture is the growing, planting, science and maintenance of trees not grown for timber or fruit. Arboriculture must also include the study of tree safety and the management of risk, as trees grown for their aesthetic and environmental value (also known as amenity trees) are normally in much closer proximity to people.

There are areas of crossover between Arboriculture, Forestry, Woodland Management and even Horticulture. Much of the science, tree mechanics, pests and diseases do not differ between these disciplines, however the approach, objectives and style of management is where the true difference lies.

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